Force, Motion, and Energy Study Guide
1. Work: the force used to move something
2. Energy: the ability or power to do work
3. There are 2 basic types of energy:
A. Kinetic: the energy gotten from a moving object. A car going down a hill has kinetic energy.
B. Potential: energy waiting to be used (stored energy). A ball waiting to be dropped. The heavier an object is or the higher it is gives it more potential energy.
4. Heat Energy- moving molecules where the heat finds cold and the cold finds heat.
5. Light Energy- energy of light
6. Sound Energy- Traveling vibrations that we can hear.
7. Electrical Energy- “moving electrons” that can be plugged into electricity. Most electrical energy can be CONVERTED into another form of electricity.
8. Mechanical energy: motion energy made by machines. When you turn a pencil sharpener, you are using mechanical energy.
9. Chemical energy: when chemicals are put together and they give off energy it is chemical like in a battery. Energy from burning materials is also chemical. Energy stored for later use such as food (calories)
Where does energy come from?
1. Sun- the Sun’s heat (collected by using solar panels) is used to produce electricity and heat.
2. Water- HYDROELECTRIC power is water flowing from high places to low places. That produces electricity.
3. Fossil Fuels- Oil, coal, and natural gas which are made out of fossils of ancient plants and animals. These are burned to produce electricity.
4. Wind- Windmills or wind turbines use moving air to produce electricity.
5. Wood- Wood is burned for heat and for cooking.
6. Geothermal- steam is created when water is heated underground. It is used to make heat and electricity.
7. Nuclear- energy is released when atoms break apart. This “explosion” produces electricity.
10. Force: a push or pull on an object
11. Friction: a resistance to motion because objects are rubbing against each other. Friction causes heat. Bike or car brakes use friction to slow them down.
12. Inertia: when your body is riding in a car and the brakes are slammed on your body keeps moving forward that is inertia. Another example is when you are sitting on a sled and your dad jerks on the rope and you fall back (stay at rest) because of inertia.
13. There are 6 Simple Machines:
D. wheel and axle
E. inclined plane
You need to know how each is used and examples from each.
14. Fulcrum: the support point of a lever and the point that a lever turns
15. Load: the thing that is being moved by the lever.
16. There are 2 types of machines:
A. Compound machines: a combination of two or more simple machines like a bike.
B. Complex machines: these are machines made of many compound machines like a computer.
12. Efficiency: this is the relationship between the energy needed and work accomplished. It is more efficient to use a back hoe or bulldozer to load a truckload of dirt than to throw it on with a shovel.