War I, THE GREAT WAR
THE WESTERN FRONT
Revised February 14, 2001
How Twenty Marines Took
Bouresches by Frank E. Schoonover
Private Albert McSorley was killed in
action on 9/04/18. He served in the 1/4 btn South Lancshire Regiment
and has no known grave. His death scroll reads as follows:
He whom this scroll commemorates was numbered among those who
at the call of King and Country, left all that was dear to them,
endured hardness, faced danger, and finally passed out of the sight
of men by the path of duty and self sacrifice, giving up their own
lives that others might live in freedom. Let those who come after see
to it that his name be not forgotten.
Great War 1914-1918
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GREAT WAR--To start things
off, the writer has attached a number of his own files which some
will find useful and interesting.
Clock--The Great War--This
site provides a very good, quick look at WW I.
Great War--This site
provides an overview of the war (PBS online).
Sites: Links to Other Resources--This
site contains many links to WW I topics.
War I, 1914-1918--This
section gives some very basic information about World War I with
emphasis on the perspectives shared throughout British
War I Aviation Homepage--World
War I played an important role in shaping the early 20TH century.
The men and the air battles that took place during this time were
one part of the colorful history of World War.
WORLD WAR LOSSES--The
number of known dead has been placed at about 10,000,000
of the Crucible of War--Those
that do remember, learned long ago that when all reasonable
diplomatic means have been exhausted in the face of a determined
aggressor, war is still sometimes necessary. They will be the
first to agree that on both sides of the conflict in such wars of
necessity, far too often, the normal constraints on human
behaviour invoked by civilized societies, are set aside in the
pursuit of military objectives, resulting in ghastly acts of
destruction of human life and property and a general yielding to
the passions of violence, ethnic hatreds and revenge; that while
there is in final consequence, no real glory in war, out of the
same, come acts of individual courage and valour that have few
parallels in peace time and with a rational valid only in the
venue in which they took place.
viewer with a virtual tour of some of the Battlefields as they
appear today--be sure to view the introduction.
Flanders Fields--It is a
lasting legacy of the terrible battle in the Ypres salient in the
spring of 1915. Here is the story of the making of that poem.
years ago, the author became interested in why so many famous
writers were ambulance drivers in World War I.
of the First World War--This
site provides a timeline for WW I with hypertext
GREAT WAR--At 11 p.m. on
4th August, 1914 Britain found herself at war in
Great War Series--This
series combines into one page, all material in The War Times
Journal which relates to World War I. It contains rare archives of
personal memoirs and galleries of previously unpublished
photographs, as well as articles and summaries provided on-line by
War I, Trenches on the Web--The
trenches are set up in such a way as to allow you to explore the
"The Great War" at your own pace and in your own manner. If you
don't know where to start, then the Reference Library is a good
bet. It is a complete catalog of everything out
Great War--"We're not
making a sacrifice. Jesus, you've seen this war. We are the
in the Great War--Helen
Burrey went to work at age 14 at Pogues, a department store in
Pittsburgh. She worked there until she entered nursing school at
St. Francis Hospital. When World War I began, she volunteered to
serve as an army nurse. She was one of the first to be sent to
Heritage of the Great War--Dedicated
to the aftermath and consequences of World War I, it contains a
large picture archive and is available in English and
Center--The Story of the
American Expeditionary Force
of the Great War--These are
the images of that time, an eternal testament to all those whose
lives were lost or forever altered by "The Great
Great War Homepage--It is
not my intention to tell the entire story of World War 1, but to
provide the visitor with an overview of Canada's role in this
terrible conflict which cost the lives of more than 56,500
Great European and World War--However
you name it, the World War that lasted from 1914 to 1918 was a
great tragedy that defined the end of an old order and laid the
foundations for a new and different century. The purpose of this
page is to provide essential information on a limited variety of
topics related to the opening months of the great
in the Trenches--After the
Battle of the Marne in September, 1914, the Germans were forced to
retreat to the River Aisne. The German commander, General von
Falkenhayn, decided that his troops must at all costs hold onto
those parts of France and Belgium that Germany still occupied.
Falkenhayn ordered his men to dig trenches that would provide them
with protection from the advancing French and British troops. The
Allies soon realized that they could not break through this line
and they also began to dig trenches. This site gives the reader a
good look at what it would be like to live in the front line
First World War--The
International Internet Encyclopedia of the First World War is
being created by teachers and students from several different
countries. Each entry includes several pages of narrative,
illustrations, and links to other relevant websites. The strategy
is to look at the international, the national and the local
dimension of the conflict. By the middle of 1998 we hope to have
over two thousand pages of information in the
March to War, The Summer of 1914--Germany
proclaimed "state of threatening danger of war."
Assassination of Archduke Franz
knows, the old Austrio-Hungarian Empire was built by conquest and
intrigues, by sales and treacheries, which held [...] men
of the upper classes were ardent patriots. They were dissimilar in
everything except hatred of the oppressor.
Poincaré's War Message--Since
the ultimatum of Austria opened a crisis which threatened the
whole of Europe, France has persisted in following and in
recommending on all sides a policy of prudence, wisdom, and
Calls France to Arms--William
II has willed it. The cannon must speak. The German Ambassador has
decided to depart, tired of waiting in Paris for acts of violence
which do not occur. Do you know the official reasons for his
departure? It is that a French aviator is alleged to have thrown
bombs on Nuremberg. In courteous language M. Viviani replied that
this was an untruth, although it was only too true that a German
troop had come into our territory and killed a French soldier; and
the Ambassador, finding nothing to say, slipped away only to
return a few minutes later to repair a slight omission. He had
forgotten to deliver to the Minister a declaration of war. One
cannot think of everything at once. . . .
Fall of Liège--The
third phase of the bombardment began at 5 o'clock in the morning
of the 15th, firing being kept up without a break until two in the
Battle of Mons--Following
the surrender of the Leige Forts by the Belgian Army, the German
Army continued its push toward Paris under the Schlieffen
Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality--The
effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what
American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America
will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the
spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all
Address to the Troops--You
are ordered abroad as a soldier of the King to help our French
comrades against the invasion of a common enemy.
Joffre's Report on the Marne--The
first month of the campaign began with successes and finished with
defeats for the French troops.
of Albert--The small town
of Albert was the site of a major offensive by the French Second
Army in September (25th to 29th) 1914. French attacks were
initially successful but eventually they were driven back beyond
the town of Albert.
of Paris--In order to watch
over the national welfare, it is the duty of the public powers to
remove themselves temporarily from the city of
Warfare Begins on the Aisne--So
far as we are concerned, the action still being contested is the
Battle of the Aisne. The foe we are fighting is just across the
river along the whole of our front to the east and west. The
struggle is not confined to the valley of that river, though it
will probably bear it's name.
First Battle of Ypres--There
were no reserves except an odd battalion or two and some regiments
of cavalry, all of which had already been sorely tried during the
past days. The French sent an urgent message to Foch for
re-enforcements, and was refused. At the end of the battle he
learned the reason. Foch had none to send, and his own losses had
been greater than ours.
First Battle of Ypres--With
the German retreat from the Marne River in the late fall of 1914,
the Allies scrambled to counterattack the Germans and to keep them
from regaining momentum to advance back toward Paris.
The soldiers in the mud, what
was it like, intimate moments of war! Detached, from the sound, the
smell and death.
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Battle of Dogger Bank--The
German ships appeared to be on fire more than once, and at last
there was no doubt about one of them--the Blücher. It was
then that our turn came, and as her fire slackened we quickly came
up with her and started with our bow six-inch with lyddite. This
is a terribly destructive shell, and when our big ships were
firing, their shells on exploding caused clouds of yellow smoke.
Our starboard battery of four-inch also came into play, but
unfortunately all this time I had to stand idly by with a shell in
my arms, as none of the guns on our side got a chance; this was
Wilson's First Warning to the Germans--The
Government of the United States views those possibilities with
such grave concern that it feels it to be its privilege, and,
indeed, its duty, in the circumstances, to request the Imperial
German Government to consider, before action is taken, the
critical situation in respect of the relations between this
country and Germany--which might arise were the German naval
force, in carrying out the policy foreshadowed in the Admiralty's
proclamation, to destroy any merchant vessel of the United States
or cause the death of American citizens.
Battle of Neuve Chapelle--The
Battle of Neuve Chapelle was an action in which, through a
surprise attack, the British reconquered the position which the
Germans had occupied in October and powerfully organized in front
of the British pivot at La Bassee. This position formed a salient
in the British line, and in order to preserve the integrity of
that line (in other words to make it stronger), it was necessary
to take the village of Neuve Chapelle.
May, 1915, The First Lusitania Note to
Germany--In view of recent
acts of the German authorities in violation of American rights on
the high seas which culminated in the torpedoing and sinking of
the British steamship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, by which over 100
American citizens lost their lives, it is clearly wise and
desirable that the Government of the United States and the
Imperial German Government should come to a clear and full
understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted.
Premier Antonio Salandra's Declaration for the
Allies--I address myself to
Italy and to the civilized world in order to show not by violent
words, but by exact facts and documents, how the fury of our
enemies has vainly attempted to diminish the high moral and
political dignity of the cause which our arms will make prevail.
36th (ULSTER) DIVISION AND ITS PART IN THE GREAT
WAR--In October, 1915,
after several months of preparation in England, men of the 36th
(Ulster) Division sailed across the Channel and began to disembark
Battle of Ypres--The Second
Battle of Ypres, 1915--By late April 1915, the Ypres front once
again became the sight of brutal fighting. On April 22, the
Germans opened up on the Allied lines with an intense artillery
barrage. As the barrage continued, a yellow-green cloud descended
on the Allied lines. For the first time in the history of warfare,
poison gas was being used.
Ruins of Soissons
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surprise assault was launched on 4-June-1916. Three of the Russian
armies broke through Austro-Hungarian lines.
is the secret motive underlying the German attempt to break the
French line at Verdun, in which the Crown Prince's army is
incurring such appalling losses?
Official Report on the Battle of
Jutland--After the first
report of the enemy, the 1st and 3rd Light Cruiser Squadrons
changed their direction and without waiting for orders spread to
the east, thereby forming a screen in advance of the Battle
Cruiser Squadrons and 5th Battle Squadron by the time we had
hauled up to the course of approach.
36th (ULSTER) DIVISION, AND THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME,
battlefields of France on 1st July, 1916, dawn broke early, for,
even during the night at that time of year, there was little
darkness. In the area of the River Somme the arrival of the first
pale glimmerings of light brought with it a little drizzly rain.
However, this was soon to pass, and the battle of this tragic,
harrowing day was destined to be fought under a blue, cloudless
sky, and a hot pitiless sun.
George on the Battle of the Somme--So,
much to the secret satisfaction of General Joffre, we turned our
backs on Salonika and our faces once more to the Somme. It ranks
with Verdun as one of the two bloodiest battles ever fought on
this earth up to that date. The casualties on both sides were well
over a million.
Somme Offensive--The Battle
of the Somme was the first all out offensive planned by the
British against the German Army in the First World
Tending the wounded of the 1st
Lancashire Fusliers. 1-July-1916
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Battle of 3rd Ypres (Passchendaele)--In
1917, the area of Flanders to the east of Ypres had great
strategic importance because it was dominated by a German occupied
ridge from the East to the South of Ypres. This was the only high
ground in a flat, featureless plain and, if the British could only
break out of the Ypres salient and take it, they could turn North
and drive the Germans from the Belgian coast and capture the ports
of Ostend and Zeebrugge from the enemy. The German position in
Belgium would be outflanked and their industrial heartland in the
Ruhr would be under threat.
Warfare--Between the two
forward trenches lay the deserted No-Man's Land which could be as
wide as half a mile, or at some points only twenty or thirty
ROAD TO PASSCHENDAELE--Nearly
eighty years ago, just before dawn at six a.m. on 6th November,
1917, the final assault and battle for the devastated ruins of the
tiny village of Passchendaele began. The cold, dull but unusually
rainless sky was lit up by the flashes from thousands of cannons
and guns spewing their murderous barrage onto the German defenders
sheltering in their trenches and fortified positions in and around
Trench Warfare 1917-1918--This
page is a small reprint from the British reference manual on
Trench Warfare, British Trench Warfare 1917-1918.
Ridge--The Battle for Vimy
Ridge, beginning 9th April 1917, was crucial for two
reasons--firstly, it gave the Allies control over an important,
heavily fortified ridge, that assisted in bringing eventual
victory to the Allies; and secondly, it gave the Canadians who
took it a sense of national pride that has not been
The 16th Irish and 36th Ulster
in the ruins that were once the village of Wytschaete.
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Allies Appeal for American Assistance--It
is the opinion of the Supreme War Council that, in order to carry
the war to a successful conclusion, an American Army should be
formed as early as possible under its own commander and under its
Gibbons at Belleau Wood--On
June 6, 1918, Floyd Gibbons, war correspondent for the Chicago
Tribune, and Lieutenant Oscar Hartzel of the Intelligence Division
entered Belleau Wood.
- 10 June, 1918, The Americans Take Belleau
Wood--I believe that when
the history of the war is written, the Americans' capture of the
Bois de Belleau will be ranked among the neatest pieces of
military work of the conflict.
1st. U.S. DIVISION AT CANTIGNY, 27th. APRIL - 8th. July
1918--In face of the
urgency created by the German offensive on the 21st March, 1918,
General Pershing placed all his forces then available in Europe at
the disposition of General Foch. Amongst these units, the 1st U.S.
Division which, on the 5th April had been positioned in the region
North of Paris, received on the 27th April, the responsibility for
a sector to the West of Montdidier, in the 6th Corps of the French
1st Army. This was the first time, on an active battle front, that
an American Division took up position.
3rd.U.S. DIVISION IN THE REGION OF CHATEAU
THIERRY--The success of the
attack on the morning of 27th May, 1918, between Berry-au-Bac et
Anizy-le-Château was a surprise. As from their first
assault, the Germans captured the Chemin des Dames; at midday they
were on the Aisne river which they crossed on the bridges that the
French had not had time to blow up. The German success exceeded
their hopes, in the evening they crossed the Vesle river, and in
the morning of the 29th they captured Soissons. They advanced
rapidly toward the Marne, in the direction of Paris, which the
Government evacuated for Bordeaux.
B. DAVIS DANS LA 2EME BATAILLE DE LA
MARNE--The Second Battle of
the Marne was fought four years later. "Terrific battles, ushering
in the dawn of victories which will ensure the freedom of the
world, were fought in July and August, 1918, between the Marne and
Vesle Rivers, from Chateau-Thierry to Soissons and Fismes. In this
soul-stirring struggle, the young American troops played a large
part, and played it with heroism and success."
GEORGE STROTT - MEDICAL DEPARTEMENT US NAVY - WITH THE 2ND DI.
US--In connection with the
planned employment of the Second Division in a large scale
counteroffensive (Foch, Directive No 2-- E.M. No 64, 3 April 1918)
to be launched north of Paris, near Amiens, on 15 June 1918, the
Fourth Brigade, after full relief at the Verdun positions on 13
and 14 May, started to move toward the new area located in the
department of the Oise.
Analysis of St. Mihiel--From
12-16 September, 1918, on the Western Front of France, one of the
most significant battles of World War One was fought, the Battle
of St. Mihiel.
World War, July-August 1918, around Soissons,
France--This site contains
many images of WW I around the area of Soissons, France.
terms were set by the Allied powers for the Armistice.
of an Armistice With Germany--Signed
on the 11th day of November, 1918, at 5 o'clock A.M.
New York Times Reports the End of the
War--WITH THE AMERICAN ARMY
IN FRANCE, Nov. 11--They stopped fighting at 11 o'clock this
morning. In a twinkling, four years of killing and massacre
stopped as if God had swept His omnipotent finger across the scene
of world carnage and had cried "Enough." (This is why the U.S.
celebrates Veteran's Day on November 11.)
Ruins of Cantigny
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Complete Treaty with all 440 Articles in a single 498k
Poppy--By wearing a Buddy
Poppy, you honor the American men and women who served to make our
country free, sometimes at the cost of their own
Record Office | About | World War I Service
Records--Since 1996, the
Public Record Office has been opening the surviving service
records of the men and women who served in the British armed
forces during the First World War.
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Flanders Fields by Major John McCrae
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on
That mark our place; and in the
The larks, still bravely singing,
Scarce heard amid the guns
We are the dead. Short days
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset
Loved, and were loved, and now we
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the
To you from failing hands we
The torch; be yours to hold it
If ye break faith with us who
We shall not sleep, though poppies
In Flanders fields.
This page was prepared for the students at
Elkton Middle School, Elkton, Virginia, by Pam Robinson so that the
Torch will continue to be held high, and all those that made the
ultimate sacrifice for freedom will not have done so in
Please share your thoughts on this page
with me that together we can work for improvement.
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copyright violation on this page, please let me know ASAP. I will
immediately take care of it.
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