Days At Gettysburg
July 1, 2, 3,
"The Turning Point Of The
And The Rebirth Of A
Updated March 30, 2001
ABRAHAM LINCOLN - GETTYSBURG
"Fourscore and seven
years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation,
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men
are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing
whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can
long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have
come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for
those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is
altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger
sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow
this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have
consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world
will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never
forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be
dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have
thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated
to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last
full measure of devotion --that we here highly resolve that these
dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall
have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by
the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
Battle of Gettysburg
Wounded, and Mortally
The above information was taken
from the book, "A Strange and Blighted Land", Gettysburg: The
Aftermath of a Battle--written by Gregory A. Coco.
Oak Ridge - McPherson Ridge Area
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Oak Ridge - McPherson Ridge Area--The
action started at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, on the
ground shown on this map. The Confederate Third Corps under Gen.
A. P. Hill swept in from the west (the left side of the map) and
pushed the Union First Corps off McPherson and Seminary Ridges
(the low hills running north to south on the right half of the
map) and then through Gettysburg.
First Day--The armies of
Lee and Meade had been maneuvering around each other in
Pennsylvania and met by chance in Gettysburg. On July 1 Lee sent
one of Hill's divisions toward Gettysburg. It clashed with Union
cavalry and infantry at Willoughby Run.
on McPherson Ridge, July 1, 1863--This
is a detail of the National Park Service map of Gettysburg
National Military Park.
Division vs. Wadsworth's Division along McPherson's
first Confederate troops to enter the vicinity of Gettysburg were
Brig. Gen. James Archer's and Brig. Gen. Joseph Davis' (the nephew
of Confederate President Jefferson Davis) Brigades of Maj. Gen.
Heth's Division (General A.P. Hill's Corps). At approximately 8
AM, Heth reached the crest of Herr Ridge and surveyed the approach
to Gettysburg. Observing minimal resistance, Heth ordered his two
Brigades (Archer and Davis) to march southeast along Chambersburg
Pike and occupy Gettysburg. Heth decided to deploy Archer to the
south and Davis to the north of the pike. But, unknown to Heth,
Union Brig. Gen. John Buford's cavalry held the town with two
Brigades and was deployed along McPherson Ridge (Col William
Gamble was deployed along Willoughby Run and Col Thomas Devin
north of the Pike - supported by Lt. John Calef's horse
artillery). Gamble's dismounted skirmishers (who were armed with
breech-loading carbines) were attacked by Archer's Infantry
Brigade, but managed to hold off the Confederate advance for over
an hour. Eventually, Gamble was gradually forced to begin a
attacks Reynolds (I Corps) on McPherson Ridge -
again--At about 2:30 PM,
General Lee arrived from the northwest in time to see Ewell's
assault. He immediately gave A.P. Hill permission to join the
attack. A.P. Hill sent BG James Johnston Pettigrew's brigade (over
2,550 men) to attack Meredith's brigade who had positioned along
attacks Howard (XI Corps) north of
failed attack, Rodes' division approached Gettyburg from the
northeast along Harrisburg Road. Early's division shortly followed
behind Rodes. Upon nearing Gettysburg, Rodes headed southwest
towards Oak Ridge where he observed Cutler's brigade preparing for
an attack from Heth. Approaching unhindered, Rodes placed 16 guns
of LtC Thomas Carter's artillery battalion upon Oak Hill and
commenced to shell Cutler's startled troops.
Area North of Gettysburg--While
the Union First Corps was holding off Hill's Confederates west of
Gettysburg, the Yankee Eleventh Corps was deploying north of town
to hold off the Gen. Richard Ewell's Confederate Second Corps, who
were approaching from the north and northeast.
and Cemetery Hills--By 4 pm
on July 1, 1863, the Union First and Eleventh Corps had been
chased from west and north of Gettysburg, and were now in
exhausted disarray on the heights of Cemetery Hill (the open rise
shown on this map immediately south of Gettysburg). Cemetery Hill
was at that hour protected by only one fresh Union reserve
brigade. There were still nearly four hours of daylight
of Gettysburg, Day 1--On
the warm morning of July 1st, 1863, a small Union calvary briagade
encountered 2 brigades of advancing confederate troops. With
breech loading carbines, the Union troops were capable of getting
off eight shots per mintue to the Confederate's three. Despite
samller numbers, the Union's technology held the Confederates at
bay. Quickly both sides called for reinforcements, and the Battle
Iverson Pits--In the far
corner of the field, Iverson's Rebels could see Union troops in
the woods and angled straight for them. They did not know that two
Union brigades, "with rifles cocked and fingers on the triggers "
were crouched behind a stone wall alongside the field through
which they moved. "When we were in point blank range," wrote a
Rebel surviver, "the dense line of the enemy rose from its
protected lair and poured into us a withering fire." The butched
Rebels fell as they marched, the dead lying in line "as straight
as a dress parade."
Ceases and Union Reinforcements arrive--General
Meade's headquarters throughout the first day's battle was nine
miles to the south of Gettysburg at Taneytown, Maryland. While
there, he had received word from Hancock that Gettysburg would be
the location to make a stand against the ANV. XII Corps arrived
shortly after the fighting ended, in addition to the two corps (I
Corps and XI Corps) that were already on the field. III Corps
shortly followed later that evening, while II Corps was closeby.
The larger VI Corps was over 30 miles away and would not arrived
until later next afternoon. General Meade arrived at Cemetery Hill
at about 23:30 on July 1 and began positioning his corps into
'Baldy' Ewell Lose Gettysburg?--After
disobeying Robert E. Lee's orders to avoid a general engagement at
Gettysburg, Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell received an order to 'press
those people.' His failure to do so created a controversy that
survives to this day.
Round Top, The Wheatfield, and The Peach Orchard
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Day July 2, 1863--The
fighting on the second day opened with a Confederate Artillery
barrage. an hour later Hood rebel divison swept in around
the Union left flank, overan Devils Den and began the climb up the
undefened Little Round Top. Little Round Top dominates the entire
Federal potion. Warren sends troopd to the crest and repule Hood's
troops after a bitter struggle.
Second Day--On July 2, the
battle lines were drawn up in two sweeping arcs. The main portions
of both armies were nearly a mile apart on two parallel ridges;
Union forces on Cemetery Ridge in the famous "fish hook" or "U"
formation, facing Confederate forces on Seminary Ridge to the
west. General Lee ordered an attack against both Union
Meade--A few days before
the Battle of Gettysburg, Meade was given command of the Army of
the Potomac. Despite the impromptu nature of the battle, Meade
pitched a good fight, and displayed good skills as a commander.
The only questionable fall back in his command at Gettysburg,was
the act of letting Lee's army to escape.
Describing the Battle of Gettysburg General Meade's letter to
Colonel G. G. Benedict describing the Battle of Gettysburg, March
16, 1870. The letter was published posthumously in the
Philadelphia Weekly Press, August 11, 1886.
Edward E. Cross-- On the
sultry afternoon of July 2, 1863, a wheatfield would become the
center of a swirling and confused whirlpool of fighting and death.
Battle on Little Round Top at
"Through Blood and Fire at Gettysburg"
ECHELON ATTACK--The Union
lines were positioned on high ground in the form of a fishhook,
allowing quick repositioning of troops from one place to another.
The Confederate forces were posted along Seminary Ridge, in
Gettysburg, and north of Culp's Hill, forming a large
maneuvers, Sickles advances, July 2, 1863, Early Morning - Mid
Evening--General Lee awoke
early July 2nd and surveyed the Union line from Seminary Ridge. He
observed that the Union line, anchored at Cemetery Hill, did not
extend very far south along Cemetery Ridge. Seizing upon the
opportunity, Lee ordered General Longstreet (who was just arriving
on the field) to move on the left flank of the Union line. Lee's
suspicions were confirmed when Captain Johnston returned from a
recon and reported that the Little Round Top and Big Round Top
along with a sizable southern stretch of Cemetery Ridge were
unoccupied (there is actually considerable debate as to whether
Johnston actually reached these heights).
Virtual Tour of Little Round Top--Here
is a view of Little Round Top taken from the Devil's Den shortly
after the Battle of Gettysburg. This image is an addressable map.
Click at different places on the map to learn more about the
battle on 2 July 1863.
Round Tops and Devil's Den, July 2,
1863--Hood came upon the
Union's southern flank only to find Sickles' III Corps in force
along Emmitsburg Road. The Union's southern flank had been
anchored in Devil's Den - this left the two Round Tops unoccupied.
Hood sent word to Longstreet to press a change of orders and swing
around further to the south. Instead, Longstreet replied that
Lee's orders were clear and called for Hood to attack up
Emmitsburg Road. Twice again Hood asked Longstreet to reconsider
the situation - the , third time officially protesting the order
(something he had never done in his career), but every time he was
denied. Given to common sense, but in complete disregard of
orders, Hood ignored Longstreet and marched eastward to attack
Devil's Den and up the Big Round Top.
of Lieut. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army, commanding First Army
Corps.--Fearing that my
force was too weak to venture to make an attack, I delayed until
General Law's brigade joined its division. As soon after his
arrival as we could make our preparations, the movement was begun.
Engineers, sent out by the commanding general and myself, guided
us by a road which would have completely disclosed the move. Some
delay ensued in seeking a more concealed route. McLaws' division
got into position opposite the enemy's left about 4 p. m. Hood's
division was moved on farther to our right, and got into position,
partially enveloping the enemy's left.
plug that hole over there" - Gettysburg--"In
the very deepest of the struggle...I saw through a sudden rift in
the thick smoke our colors standing alone... The cross-fire had
cut keenly; the center had been almost shot away; only two of the
color guard had been left, and they fighting to fill the whole
space... I then called my young brother, Tom, the adjutant, and
sent him forward to close that gap somehow; if no men could be
drawn from neighboring companies, to draw back the salient angle
and contract our center.
Greatest Hero--It was the
second day of the Battle of Gettysburg. After smashing Maj. Gen.
Daniel Sickles' III Corps in the Peach Orchard, pushing the
Yankees back through the Wheat Field and Devil's Den, General
Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was on its way to
turning the left flank of Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the
- Battle of "The Devil's Den", "Slaughter Pen", and Little Round
reconstruction is exhaustively based on photography recorded just
after the battle at Gettysburg, which ended July 3, 1863. Every
attempt has been made to put every discernible mullein plant and
granite boulder (as well as its moss and lichen) in its
historically proper place. Comparisons of modern and historical
photography shows that little has changed in the Gettysburg battle
area. Trees and shrubs come and go but granite
GENERAL JOHN BELL HOOD--To
adjust to the new situation, Longstreet sent Hood and his men
further south, into Biesecker's Woods, and changed the attack
plan. Hood's division would now attack first up the Emmitsburg
Road, drive in the Yankee left, and assist McLaws's men when they
Wheatfield, July 2, 1863--Starting
at 16:30, after Hood's Brigades took over Devil's Den, Kershaw and
Anderson attacked along Rose's Woods and the Wheatfield. The Union
III Corps supported by the V Corps defended the Peach Orchard and
along Emmitsburg Road. Anderson, Kershaw, and Semmes Divisions
attacked along the Peach Orchard and the Wheat Field. The V Corps,
realizing that they were being outflanked, withdrew to the
Wheatfield Road. At this point, Capt. George Winslow's NY Battery
held off the Confederate advance for several minutes. The fighting
was fierce and three brigade commanders, Col. Edward E. Cross and
BG Samuel K. Zook of Caldwell's Division, and BG Paul Semmes of
McLaw's Division were killed in the fighting.
Peach Orchard, July 2, 1863--At
about 17:00, Kershaw's SC Brigade attacked the Stony Hill (located
between the Peach Orchard and the Wheatfield). Thirty cannons of
the Union III Corps and the Artillery Reserve were tasked with
holding this section and were positioned along Wheatfield Road.
Barnes' Division had set itself on the Stony Hill facing westward.
As Kershaw's Brigade neared the line and while taking heavy fire,
someone erroneously ordered the Brigade to parallel the Union
position - exposing its flanks to the Union line.
AGAINST THE TRENCHES"--In
any event, the Twelfth Corps was soon busy constructing solid
works. The pioneers were not on hand to assist, so the troops
improvised with the tools at their disposal; bayonets, tin pans,
and drinking cups. Remembering the recent debacle at
Chancellorsville, the Yankee's were determined to build a strong
barricade of stones, branches, felled trees, and dirt. In some
places a head log was blocked atop the works,allowing a rifle-
musket to be fired though the opening beneath. As always, the men
complained that such efforts were wasted, but being good soldiers,
did as they were told. After two to three hours of strenuous
labor, the project was finished. Steuart's men listened to the
sounds of construction in their front, the woods on Culp's Hill
concealing evidence of what lay in store for them.
Charge and Stuart's Cavalry
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plan first called for an artillery barrage by Confederate
artillery along Seminary Ridge and east of town. It was hoped that
the barrage would reduce the Union Batteries and inflict heavy
damage to the surrounding infantry. After the barrage, nearly
12,000 men, including 3 brigades under the command of MG George E.
Pickett, would attack the Union center. Once the assault reached
the Union line, reinforcements would arrive to exploit the
breakthrough. In support, Lee ordered General Stuart's cavalry to
head east and strike southward in hopes of reaching the Union's
Third Day--In spite of this
lack of success, Lee decided to lauch a massive attack again the
next day. Late in the day of July 2nd J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry had
rejoined Lee. The Union forces had continued to build their
strength along Cemetery Ridge. General Lee ordered Longstreet to
throw Pickett's division at the center of the fishhook's shank and
to support the drive with other units from his corps and from A.P.
Hill's unit. Lee decided to press the attack to the Union center
on Cemetery Ridge.
General George Stannard--The
third day of the Battle of Gettysburg was hot and humid. The
battlefield, littered with thousands of dead and dying, bore grim
testimony to the fierce fighting of the previous two days. The
smell of decomposing corpses and gunpowder lingered in the air as
the heaviest artillery bombardment of the Civil War ended. Then,
in three lines of battle, 10,500 Confederates marched across the
battlefield and surged up the gentle slope of Cemetery Ridge
toward the waiting Federal troops.
Field made Glorious"--Cemetery Hill: From Battleground to Sacred
Ground--In the history of
Cemetery Hill there were three major events that occurred upon
this important elevation: its role during and its effect upon the
final outcome of the battle, being chosen as a sacred burial
ground for American war veterans, and as the site of the most
momentous speech in American history.
3... The deciding moment--Lee,
realizing the strategic importance for the south of capturing
Little Round Top (as it would have allowed southern artilliary
fire to hit every section of the Union army) ordered a massive
attack at the center of the Union army.
High Water Mark of the Confederacy--Lee
decided that since the enemy was there, on Cemetery Ridge, the
Confederates would attack him there. Gen. Longstreet argued that a
maneuver to the south of the Union left flank would be a better
idea, and might place the Rebel army between the Yankees and
Washington, a situation in which General Meade might be forced to
attack in unfavorable terrain.
Charge--It was at one
o'clock that two Confederate signal guns were fired, and at once
there opened such an artillery combat as the armies had never
before seen. Taken from the book "General Meade" by Isaac R.
Pennypacker published 1901
Charge--Who can describe
such a conflict as is raging around us? To say that it was like a
summer storm, with the crash of thunder, the glare of lightning,
the shrieking of the wind, and the clatter of hailstones, would be
CHARGE AT GETTYSBURG--AUTHOR:
La Salle Corbell (Mrs. George E.) Pickett--One hundred Federal
guns now concentrated their whole fury of shot and shell upon the
advancing line. Every inch of air seemed to be filled with some
death-dealing missile. The men and officers were fast being
slaughtered. Kemper went down, mangled and bleeding, never again
to lead his valiant Virginians in battle..
Virginia Infantry's Action at
Gettysburg."--This is a
small excerpt of an article writtin by Colonel Joseph Mayo,for the
Richmond Times Dispatch Dec.13,1914. He was a survior of that
dreaded day at Gettysburg.
But Glory Gained--"General,"
said Longstreet, "I have been a soldier all my life. I have been
with soldiers engaged in fights by couples, by squads, companies,
regiments, divisions, and armies, and should know as well as
anyone what soldiers can do. It is my opinion that no 15,000 men
ever arrayed for battle can take that position." Unconvinced Lee
told him to summon Pickett.
General George Stannard at Gettysburg--On
the left of the Federal line on the ridge, Brig. Gen. George
Jerrison Stannard and three weary regiments of his inexperienced
2nd Vermont Brigade anxiously awaited the Confederate assault. The
Rebels struck farther up the line, directly to the right of the
Vermonters. Stannard, seeing this, wheeled two of his regiments
around the Confederates' exposed flank. From their forward
position, the nearly 1,500 men of the 13th and 16th Vermont
regiments poured devastating point-blank fire into the enemy
ranks. Inflicting terrible casualties and ravaging the Confederate
flank, the Vermonters helped turn the tide of the battle and of
the war itself. Stannard's performance that day was the high point
of his distinguished career.
Cavalry encounters Gregg Farnsworth attacks near Little Round
Top--The two cavalry forces
met three miles east of Gettysburg near the Rummel farm about noon
on July the 3rd. Stuart deployed his brigades (about 6,300 men) in
the woods on Cress Ridge to the north. Gregg's Division, along
with George Custer's Brigade (totalling about 4,500 men) was
situated along Hanover road to the south.
Cavalry Field--On July 3,
Stuart had his chance at redemption on the field shown on this
map, several miles to the east of Gettysburg. The general idea was
for him to fight his way through the Yankee cavalry and lead his
division into the rear of the Union army while Generals Pickett
and Longstreet attacked from in front.
Cavalry Field--In Gen.
Custer's own words: "Upon arriving at the point designated, I
immediately placed my command in a position facing toward
Gettysburg. At the same time I caused reconnaissances to be made
on my front, right, and rear, but failed to discover any
considerable force of the enemy . . . The 5th Michigan was
dismounted and ordered to take position in front of my center and
left . . . I ordered 50 men of the 6th Michigan to be sent out the
Low Dutch Road.
Gen. "Jeb" Stuart, Confederate Army--In
the Gettysburg campaign Stuart, taking advantage of ambiguous
orders, embarked on a controversial raid around the Federal army.
As a result, he was absent when Lee most needed him to gather
intelligence about the enemy, arriving only after the battle was
Open field surgery as an
amputation is performed at a Union hospital tent.
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Aftermath--When the armies
marched away from Gettysburg they left behind a community in
shambles and more than 51,000 killed, wounded and missing
soldiers. Wounded and dying were crowded into nearly every
building. Most of the dead lay in hasty and inadequate graves;
some had not been buried at all. The situation so distressed
Pennsylvania's Gov. Andrew Curtin that he commissioned a local
attorney, David Wills, to purchase land for a proper burial ground
for the Union dead. Within four months of the battle, re-interment
began on 17 acres that became Gettysburg National
letter from a young Michigan cavalryman gives a
ungrammatical--account of Gettysburg and its
Nov 19, 1863 by Abraham Lincoln
and the Battle of Gettysburg--"After
that bloody 1st of July, 1863, at Gettysburg, the little town
(population of 2,400) was rapidly filled to its utmost capacity
with shattered and shot-torn men. All the churches, school
buildings, warehouses, halls and public edifices were crowded with
the wounded who lay in rows on the floor or on trestles hastily
constructed with boards from adjacent lumber
Return of Confederate Dead from Gettysburg to
Battle of Gettysburg, the Confederate dead were buried along the
roads, shoved into trenches, or consigned to common graves. The
Southerners were seen as traitorous invaders and their bodies were
not accorded the respect afforded the men in blue. One newspaper
reporter wrote: "The poor Confederate dead were left in the fields
as outcasts and criminals that did not merit decent sepulture."
President Lincoln's immortal words were not spoken over their
unattended, and unmarked, graves.
TO A MYSTERY--Of all the
fallen heroes of the epic, three-day Civil War Battle of
Gettysburg in July 1863, this Union soldier was unique. He had not
led a charge, nor captured an enemy flag, nor rescued a comrade
under fire. Instead, his fame rested on his dying act of devotion
and love; his death pose made his story special.
Hagerstown, Falling Waters Maryland--During
the night of July 4-5, Lee's battered army began its retreat from
Gettysburg, moving southwest on the Fairfield Road toward
Hagerstown and Williamsport, screened by Stuart's cavalry. The
Union infantry followed cautiously the next day, converging on
Middletown, Maryland. On July 7, Imboden (CS) stopped Buford's
Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying
During the night of July 4-5, Lee's battered army began its
retreat from Gettysburg, moving southwest on the Fairfield Road
toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, screened by Stuart's cavalry.
The Union infantry followed cautiously the next day, converging on
Middletown, Maryland. On July 7, Imboden (CS) stopped Buford's
Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying
A dead Confederate sharp
shooter at the foot of Little Round Top
Devil's Den Sharpshooter
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Visitors Guide to Gettysburg--This
site provides the viewer with a pictorial view of the
MONUMENTS & POINTS OF INTEREST--that
represent where and how the battles and the Civil War happened, is
what Gettysburg is all about.
PA--Scroll down the page
and click on the monument name to view the
from this era depict various battle scenes.
of Gettysburg--Taken just
after the Battle
Gettysburg Battle Archive--
picture archive, Click on a Thumbnail Picture to view a larger
Pic. This site contains many pictures taken after the
site contains 23 images of the Gettysburg Battlefield taken
shortly after the battle. Scroll down to number 10 to
Today--A photographic tour
of the Gettysburg Battlefield, Historical Buildings, and
National Military Park Virtual Tour--Gettysburg
National Military Park was established by Federal Law on February
11, 1895. The park was administered by a specially appointed
commission of Civil War veterans under the United States War
The gatehouse at the entrance
to Evergreen Cemetery. The cemetery was at the northern part of a
series of hills and slopes extending southward from Gettysburg called
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Thorn's Battle Narrative--At
the time of the Battle of Gettysburg Elizabeth was caretaker of
Evergreen Cemetery, the job normally performed by her husband
Peter who was serving with the 138th Pennsylvania which was at
Harpers Ferry and Washington, D.C. during the Gettysburg Campaign.
She had her parents, Catherine and John Masser age 63, and her
three sons; Fred age 7, George age 5, and John age 2, all living
with her in the cemetery gatehouse. Elizabeth was also six months
pregnant. This is her personal account of her experience at the
Battle of Gettysburg.
Diary of Lida Welsh Bender--I
was a 16 year old girl when the quiet little town of Gettysburg
had greatness thrust upon it with a roar and clash that made the
encircling hills tremble. We dwellers in Waynesboro, another small
town, little more than a score of miles distant knew nothing of
the terrible three days' conflict until it was over. The
intervening Blue Ridge Mountains intercepted the sound and, being
within the enemy's lines, we were cut off from all outside
communication, but we had known many of war's alarms, and we were
to witness for many days the tragic aftertmath of the battle.
Diary of Rachel Cormany--It
is frightful how those poor wounded rebels are left to suffer.
they are taken in large 4 horse waggons--wounds undressed--nothing
of Samuel Cormany--Early we
took up the march for Chambersburg--Crossing the
battlefield--Cemitary Hill--The Great Wheat Field Farm, Seminary
ridge--and other places where dead men, horses, smashed artillery,
were strewn in utter confusion, the Blue and The Grey mixed--Their
bodies so bloated--distorted--discolored on account of
decomposition having set in--that they were utterly
unrecognizable, save by clothing, or things in their pockets--The
scene simply beggars description.
of Gettysburg Essay--Gettysburg
is arguably the Army of the Potomac's (AOP) only great victory on
the battlefield. Antietam, certainly a strategic victory, showed
Robert E. Lee's unstoppable killing machine was indeed stoppable.
Burns Hero of Gettysburg--In
the town of Gettysburg live an old couple by the name of Burns.
The old man was in the War of 1812, and is now nearly seventy
years of age; yet the frosts of many winters have not chilled his
patriotism, nor diminished his love for the old flag under which
he fought in his early days. When the rebels invaded the beautiful
Cumberland Valley, and were marching on Gettysburg, old Burns
concluded that it was time for every loyal man, young or old, to
be up and doing all in his power to beat back the rebel foe. and,
if give them a quiet resting-place beneath the sod they were
polluting with their unhallowed feet.
of William Heyser --(For
Gettysburg information skip to JUly2,1863)--Cloudy and very hot.
The Rebels are leaving Chambersburg for Gettysburg. About 3 this
morning, I was awakened by the rumbling of heavy wagons. There
were about 60 of them, followed by a large body of troops,
requiring about two hours to pass. They were quite jubilant in
their passage thru town, pulling my bell at the door and hooting
ACCOUNT (A firsthand account of the 3
days)--The Battle of
Gettysburg will be one of the longest remembered of all the
battles of this war. It was sanguinary and desperate. Both armies
had good positions and what is most anomalous in war both occupied
such advantageous ground that neither could drive the other away.
At different times during the battle each commanding general
contemplated a retreat.
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863--
Memories of a teenage girl. Tillie Pierce was born in 1848 and
when the battle began, had lived all her life in the village of
Gettysburg. Her father made his living as a butcher and the family
lived above his shop in the heart of town. Tillie witnessed the
entire battle and published her observations twenty-six years
after the event.
Brigade --On July 1, 1863,
Heth's Division marched east towards Gettysburg, with only
Pettigrew and his brigade expecting, and prepared to do battle.
Gen. Archer's Brigade was surprised, routed, and Archer, himself,
AND POLTROONERY OF THE REBEL SURGEONS--The
infamy and cowardice of the Rebel surgeons in deserting the men of
their army wounded at the battle of Gettysburg is without parallel
in the war. In every battle in which fortune has been adverse to
our arms and our wounded have been temporarily left within the
Rebel lines, the brave and self denying surgeons of the regiments
have either remained with the fallen or have immediately applied
for peace within the Rebel lines, that they might be cared
of Gettysburg--The loss in
killed and wounded on both sides has been fearful, the rebel loss
being considerably in excess of ours, owing to the fact that on
Thursday and Friday they fought against the advantages of
naturally strong positions. The aggregate loss is estimated at
Battle of Gettysburg--Scroll
down the page to read the official records of many of the Union
and Confederate commanders' reports on the Battle of
Soldiers National Cemetery--To
properly bury the Union soldiers who died at Gettysburg, a
"Soldiers Cemetery" was established on thebattleground near the
center of the Union line. Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin
supported the proposal with state funds to purchase the cemetery
grounds and pay for the reinterment of Union dead from inadequate
grave sites that covered the battlefield.
have visited the Gettysburg Battlefield many times and am always awed
by the history that surrounds me. The field that once ran red with
blood, the silent meadows that were once filled with the roar of
cannon and the screams of the dying, are now so serene. It is my hope
that this page will help the user in some small way experience this
sacred ground upon which our nation was reborn! This page is
dedicated to the memory of those 3 days in July,1863.
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